India has a total land area of 3.3 million square kilometres, 2,933 kms wide and the 3,214 kms long. The Indian sub-continent is set apart from the rest of Asia by the towering Himalayas to the north. Also in the north are China, Nepal and Bhutan, to the northwest, Afghanistan and Pakistan and in the east, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Every geographical feature is present in India, from mountains to plains, deserts to seas, and so is a wide variety of flora, fauna and climates, from the tropical to the arctic. Climatically mainly tropical in Southern India but temperatures in the north range from sub-zero degrees to 50 degrees Celsius. There are well defined seasons in the northern region : winter (Dec – Feb), Spring (Mar – Apr), Summer (May – Jun), monsoons (Jul – Sep) and autumn (Oct – Nov).